Talk about trust!
Talk about trust!
In researching for my novel, “The Cardinal“, I did a lot of research into the Viking Age of Scotland, Norway, and in modern-day Britain. The following is a snippet of the notes and thoughts I percolated over while studying into this amazing time in world history. Some of the speculations, such as the motivations behind the Lindisfarne attack, are my own, based on studies and extrapolation.
I think it’s impossible to do justice to any information about the Vikings; their existence, culture, language, mentality, and the effect of their actions have had repercussions that echo down through the ages. They gave names to countless cities throughout the world, and even entire regions: The Norse kingdom of Dublin (Old Norse for “Black Pool”) was a major centre of the Norse slave trade; Limerick, Wexford and Wicklow were other major ports of trade; Russia gets its name from them, and the list goes on and on. Had they not been so successful in the slave trade and conquest, entire regions of the earth would be populated differently, place names would be vastly different, and English would be a far poorer language than it is today.
“A.D. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine and slaughter.” (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pg. 37)
This reference from The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, one of the most famous history books available in English, is a reference to what would become known as the beginning of the Viking Age, the attack on the Holy Isle of Lindisfarne. Firstly, I’d like to clarify a few points: “Viking” is a term that first came into being, in its present spelling, in 1840; it entered English through the Old Norse term “vikingr” in 1807. The Old Norse term meant “freebooter, pirate, sea-rover, or viking”, and the term “viking” meant “piracy, freebooting voyage.” The armies of what we would call Vikings were referred to by their contemporaries as Danes, and those who settled were known by the area they settled in, or visa-versa. Those who settled in the northeastern regions of Europe were called Rus by their Arabian and Constantinopolitan trading partners, perhaps related to the Indo-European root for “red”, referring to their hair colour, or – more likely – related to the Old Norse word of Roþrslandi, “the land of rowing,” in turn related to Old Norse roðr “steering oar,” from which we get such words as “rudder” and “row”.
Oh, and not a single Norse battle helmet with horns has ever been found.
I’d like to focus on a key point of the Lindisfarne episode, if one could refer so glibly to the slaughter of innocent monks and the beginning of the reign of terror that held the civilized world in constant fear for over two centuries: Yes, the Vikings were violent; their religion of violent gods and bloody sacrifices and rituals encouraged and cultivated it to a fine art. Yes, the Vikings were tradesmen, but they were also skilled pirates and raiders, that skill honed along their own home coasts for generations prior to their debut on the rest of the unsuspecting world. Yes, it was known that monasteries held items sacred to the Christian faith, that just happened to be exquisitely wrought works of art made of gold and jewels.
Gold was one enticement; but their primary trading good was human flesh; slaves. It was by far the most lucrative item, and readily had along any coast they chose; if too many died in the voyage they could always just get more before they docked at Constantinople, Dublin, or any other major trading port. So why did they slaughter the monks so mercilessly at Lindisfarne, when they would have gained more by taking them captive and either selling them as slaves or selling them for ransom? The answer might actually be found in Rome.
Charlemagne (ruled 768-814 AD) took up his father’s reigns and papal policies in 768 AD. From about 772 AD onwards, his primary occupation became the conversion to Christianity of the pagan Saxons along his northeastern frontier. It is very important to make a distinction between the modern expressions of the Christian faith and the institution of power mongers of past centuries; Christianity then had extremely little to do with the teachings of Christ and far more to do with political and military power, coercion, and acquisition of wealth through those powers; it was a political means to their own ends with the blessing of the most powerful politician in the history of the civilized world, the Pope. Without his blessing and benediction, a king had not only very little power, but was exposed to attack from anyone who had “holy permission” to exterminate heathens; joining the ranks of the Christian church took on the all-important definition of survival, and protection from the others in those ranks being free to attack you at their leisure.
In the year 772 AD, Charlemagne’s forces clashed with the Saxons and destroyed Irmensul, the Saxon’s most holy shrine and likely their version of the Yggdrasil, the Tree of the World, of Scandinavian mythology. In the Royal Frankish Annals of 775 AD, it was recorded that the king (Charlemagne) was so determined in his quest that he decided to persist until they were either defeated and forced to accept the papal authority (in the guise of “Christian faith”), or be entirely exterminated [Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard’s Histories, trans. Bernhard Walter Scholz with Barbara Rogers (Michigan 1972: 51)]. Charlemagne himself conducted a few mass “baptisms” to underscore the close identification of his military power with the Christian church.
“In 782 the Saxons rebelled again and defeated the Franks in the Süntel hills. Charlemagne’s response was the infamous massacre of Verden on the banks of the river Aller, just south of the neck of the Jutland peninsula. As many as 4,500 unarmed Saxon captives were forcibly baptised into the Church and then executed. Even this failed to end Saxon resistance and had to be followed up by a programme of transportations in 794 in which about 7,000 of them were forcibly resettled. Two further campaigns of forcible resettlement followed, in 797 and in 798…. Heathens were defined as less than fully human so that, under contemporary Frankish canon law, no penance was payable for the killing of one” [Ferguson, Robert (2009-11-05). The Hammer and the Cross: A New History of the Vikings (Kindle Locations 1048-1051). Penguin UK. Kindle Edition.]
The defining of a heathen as less than human was actually not a unique idea; Scandinavians were familiar with that notion from their own cultures, which defined slaves as less than human and therefore tradable goods; and if a freeman announced his intention of killing someone (anyone) it was not considered murder as the victim was given “fair” warning.
The more I learn about Charlemagne’s brutal policies toward what he considered sub-human pagans, the more I understand the reaction of retaliation toward the symbols of that so-called Christian faith, the monasteries and its inhabitants. They slaughtered, trampled, polluted, dug up altars, stole treasures, killed some, enslaved some, drove out others naked while heaping insults on them, and others they drowned in the sea. The latter was perhaps a tit-for-tat for those at Verden who were forcibly baptised and then killed.
Lindisfarne was merely the first major attack in Britain that was highly publicized (as chroniclers of history were usually monks, and those such as Alcuin knew the inhabitants of Lindisfarne personally), in what would become a 250-year reign of terror, violence, slavery, raping, pillaging, plundering and theft either by force or by Danegeld. But as in all good histories, it’s important to remember that hurt people hurt people; the perpetrator was at one time a victim. One might say that what goes around comes around. It’s no excuse or downplay of what happened there, which literally changed the course of the civilised world, but it perhaps gives a wider perspective on the Vikings of the times rather than just the vicious raiders portrayed in so many documentaries. And it is important to remember that Vikings did not equal Norsemen; the majority of Scandinavians were farmers and fishermen, living as peacefully as their times would allow, and even themselves victims to the occasional Viking raid.
The following post was originally 3 separate posts on my History Undusted blog; it is a lengthier post than I usually offer, but well worth the read for those interested in history, World War Two, and life in the US Navy. Enjoy!
My grandfather, Raymond Dale Kuhns, was a clerk aboard the cruiser USS Metevier for 6-9 months during World War 2, based out of San Diego, California. His typewriter was bolted to the desk, the desk to the floor, but his chair was on rollers; so he’d type a few letters before rolling away, and wait to roll back; ever after he typed with the hunt and peck method, as it apparently didn’t do much good to learn touch typing.
The document below is the onboard journal that he kept during that time, beginning in November 1944, through June 1945. There are a few notes for clarity interspersed, written by myself, or by my mother, Connie, of stories he told her; she was three at the time. While the journal entries are very matter-of-fact, without many personal “memoir” elements, it is still a fascinating historical insight into life aboard a ship during the Second World War. My grandfather was the biggest practical joker I will ever care or dare to come into contact with; any practical jokes that happened aboard, such as the monkey and chicken, were most likely instigated by him…
3 Nov. 1944 – Underway in heavy fog.
4 Nov 1944 – Loaded ammunition. Dropped some down hatch! Whew!
9 Nov. 1944 (mail sent) Passed through gate to Limon Bay, Canal Zone, Panama. Moored Coaling Pier, Cristobal. Left (Nov) 10th, went through Miraflores Lock.
13 Nov. 1944 (mail sent) Crossed equator at 0756. Now a “Shellback”. (Connie’s note- Dad told stories about the hazing men endured first time to cross the equator. – had to run a gauntlet of fire hoses in action, a “swat-line” between the “old timers” hitting them with paddles, all kinds of practical jokes, etc.). Entered Deolian Cave, Baltna Island, Galapagos. Saw 2 seals, fishing. Left 14th.
25 Nov. 1944. (mail sent) Entered Bora Bora, Society Island. Beautiful. Purchased 2 grass skirts, bracelet, 2 sets beads. Were they made in U.S.??? Left 26th (Connie – “We probably still have the grass skirts – and I know there is a picture of AJ and I with them. Also, the “beads” were small conch shells – probably also a pic somewhere, I’ll try to find it”).
Summary: Month was uneventful. Seasick first night out. Never set my foot on land. Received no mail.
3 Dec. 1944. No such date for us. Crossed the International Date Line.
6 Dec. 1944. Missed wife on her birthday. Great gal. Made landfall on Solomon. Skirted NW tip of Guadalcanal. First liberty. 4 Cokes!! Left 8 Dec.
11 Dec. 1944. Entered Humbolt Bay, Dutch New Guinea (“Hollandia”) Left 19th
14 Dec. 1944. Connie’s birthday. Miss the rascal.
25 Dec. 1944. Miss my wife and kiddies especially. First enemy contact. Dropped bomb. One plane. Undamaged or undamaging.
26 Dec. 1944. Entered Leyte Gulf. Left 27th.
Summary: Looks like business is picking up. I forgot to mention that Dec. 24th, we made our first depth charge attack. No luck! Amazed at mass of ships in Leyte. No attacks while there.
15 Jan. 1945. Leaving Lingayen Gulf for Leyte??
16 Jan 1945. Friendly plane came out of clouds. G.Q. called (“general quarters”). Came near firing. From angle it approached, we couldn’t hardly of missed. A real scare.
17 Jan. 1945. 0300 D.Disn. Convoy destroyed Jap barge. Search light revealed several Japs in it. Used 5″ and 40 mm. Did not try to rescue any.
20 Jan. 1945. (mail sent/ mail received) Entered San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Philippines. Hope wife receives letter I wrote today.
26 Jan. 1945. Left Leyte for invasion of Luzon, just north of Subic Bay.
29 Jan. 1945. 14 hours minus 1 or 7:30 naval bombardment of beaches to begin. However, 10 minutes before, Philippine guerillas came out and informed us territory taken. So this invasion force of 60,000 landed without a shot being fired. We are sitting 60 miles from Manila. It is now mid-afternoon, and Japs have not contested invasion at all. Things look good for us here. Left 2000 for Leyte without once contacting enemy.
30 Jan 1945. Ship in convoy was struck by torpedo. No casualties. Ship towed in and repaired.
This month really went fast!
1 Feb. 1945. Arrived back in Leyte. No action or alerts on return trip from Luzon. Too late to go after mail!!! SHUCKS!
2 Feb. 1945. Liberty in Leyte. 6 Cokes!! Learned foot soldiers’ view of our enemy.
3 Feb. 1945 (mail received/ mail sent) Brought 2 monkeys and 2 roosters aboard. Had to get rid of them.
6 Feb. 1945. Left Leyte without getting any more mail.
11 Feb. 1945. Arrived Woendi. This is a group of coral islands near New Guinea. Beautiful. Like a vacation here.
12 Feb. 1945. Liberty. Played basketball, then went swimming.
13 Feb. 1945. Received special liberty to play on baseball (softball) team. Defeated tug 4 – 3 in 10 innings. Won 4 cases beer and got 5 cases from ship. The boys all came back stewed. I had to drink one for thirst. No fresh water available.
14 Feb, 1945, Left this “rest camp” with memories of best time since leaving dear wife and kiddies. Going back to front in all probability. Feeling ready now. Hope to get mail SOON!!
20 Feb. 1945. (Mail received/ mail sent) Arrived back on Leyte. Trip back uneventful. Received 24 letters. Boy oh Boy!
21 Feb, 1945. Liberty. Sold beer for $1, gave other 3 away.
24 Feb, 1945, (mail sent/mail received). Received 16 more letters.
25 Feb. 1945. Attended church USS Wasatch. Refused liberty. Stayed aboard and wrote letters.
27 Feb. 1945. Left Leyte for Mindoro. Glad to get away. Poor liberty.
Summary: This month very uneventful. Enjoyed liberty at Woendi more than anything else. Got fairly well caught up on mail.
Here are a few extra bits of trivia from my mother:
[NOTE: Back in the mid-1980s I was in the Philippines for two months, living near the Subic Bay Naval Base just across a bridge from Olongapo. I saw up close and personal the temptations men in the military face, and for a Christian man such as my grandfather, he had to try and find alternatives to “going out with the boys” on liberty, though often the Red Light District was (and is) where the restaurants were, so it was a Catch 22. When I was living there I was working with a Christian missions organisation among the prostitutes, drug dealers and pimps, as well as those who worked in street shop/booths (I’m still in touch with one or two!), and our home was a place for the Christian military men to come and hang out when they were off-duty; nearly every day I’d come down to the living room to find strangers there, reading or talking. I don’t know if he had such a place back then, but fisherman’s missions and military missions are far more common now, because the temptations (the sex industry, drugs, alcohol, etc.) are more rampant than ever. When I returned to the States he enjoyed talking to me about Subic and the PI as he knew it, and I think it was special for him to talk to his granddaughter who had seen some of the places and things he’d seen so many years before.]
1 March 1945. This month started off with a bang. Dropped D.C. (depth charges)- 5 of them in the middle of the night. I was on helm. Boys sleeping really thought we got it. Entered Mindoro.
2-5 March 1945. (mail sent/mail received) A/S duty Mangatin Bay. Got mail, which means they transferred us here for duty.
6 March 1945. Off Manila Bay A/S duty, then returned to Mangatin Bay.
7 March 1945. Entered Bay for fueling.
8,9,10 March, 1945. Another A/S* sweep to Luzon. (*anti-mine sweep)
11 March 1945. Back to A/S Mindoro.
12 March 1945. (mail sent/mail received). Got mail via ship that had been in Port. Proceeded into Bay and got more mail.
14 March 1945. Availability cancelled. A ship on A/S sweep run aground we had to relieve it. Just our luck.
15-18 March 1945. A/S sweep and on 18 entered Mangarin for 2 days availablity.
19 March 1945. Liberty in Mindoro. Quite a place. Rode in a jeep with army captain to San Jose. Saw sugar mill that was hit by P-47 in morning. Saw unit of paratroopers who made landings on Corrigedor. Helped sort mail at P.O. FINALLY got Christmas presents. Included billfold, leather toilet kit, shower shoes, pictures, and wedding band. Every gift perfect. One box of candy had to be thrown away. Really enjoyed it even though it was late.
20-23 March 1945. A/S sweep off Mindoro.
24-25 March 1945. (mail sent/mail received) A/S sweep to Luzon and returned. Fueled and got underway for Leyte. These two days were roughest I have seen. Had to strap myself in sack. Did not get sick. 36 bags Christmas mail.
26-28 March 1945. Escorting Army tug with barge at 3-1/2 knots. No wonder it took us 4 days to get here. Entered San Pedro Bay.
29-31 March 1945. (sent mail/received mail). Available for maintenance. We got 11 bags of mail, but most of it was rest of Christmas packages.
Summary: Most of this month was spent on ping line of A/S duty. The first was most amusing. Christmas packages really helped our moral. Nothing exciting or dangerous.
1-4 April 1945. (mail sent/mail received) In San Pedro Bay. Received one liberty – had interesting conversation with Philippine guerrila. Scabby sores on natives pathetic sight. Still getting good mail service. Red Light District.
(Note: the “scabby sores” were probably secondary syphillis – sailors often given penicillin IM before they let them off the boat!)
5 April 1945. Underway to Manila. 3 escorts with one troop ship. 15 knots – exceptionally fast convoy.
7 April 1945. Arrived Manila. Passed very close to Corregidor and got a good look at it. Liberty in Manila. What a place. Harbor full of sunken Jap ships. Every building in business district damaged. Most of them blown to bits. Saw Jap mass-burial place. Cars that looked like strainers. Eats very high – 75 cents for one scoop ice cream. Rode in cart affair (horse-drawn) through town cost us $2.50. Men came back to ship drunk and not virgins. People dress very American. Had to wear whites on this liberty. Really got my first glimpse of war devastation. Got stamps and money souvenirs.
8-9 April 1945. Anchored in Manila harbor. No mail service here at all.
10 April 1945. Left Manila for Leyte
11 April 1945. All hell broke loose at 1130. We rammed native sailboat that was carrying 42 persons. Called to G.Q. As I was asleep, I really bounced out of my sack when alarm sounded. Arrived at G.Q. station and heard hysterical screams of survivors and saw them as we illuminated them. Picked up 37 survivors. Continued search. Picked up 2 small babies floating face down. Dead when rescued, but boys worked feverishly for 3 hours with artificial respiration, but no luck.
12 April 1945. (sent mail/received mail) 0330 another G.Q. with fire amidships. I couldn’t imagine us having another G.Q. and just stood and listened to alarm, but when fire was announced, I tore up to station. I was not in my sack at the time, as survivors had our compartment. Two small girls had my bunk. Fire not serious and confined to drying room. Had 4-8 watch, so was up till 10:30 next night without sleep. One small baby died from effects of night before. Transferred the survivors around noon, as we arrived back in Leyte. There were 36 alive (one expected to die), 3 dead, and 3 we could not find in the wreckage. The miracle to me was the number that lived through the ordeal. Saw anguish in mothers’ faces as they looked at dead children. Saw and sympathized with those who missed their children. The native craft was supposed to have been 50 feet in length and cost 10,000 pesos. A very large native boat. It was taking natives away from Japs on Mindanao. We were first Americans they had seen since 1941. Doubt very much if they were happy to see us. Made Y2C (Yeoman 2nd class). Received authorization from ComSerfor. Ship was very nice and did not make me wait for first of month. That means treats for the boys.
13 April 1945. (mail received) Learned of President’s death (FDR). Also got news of being 50 miles from Berlin. Liberty at Pambujuan, Samar. Pulled joke on chief regarding censorship regulations – very effective.
14 April 1945. LOST MY WEDDING BAND! Don’t know how or where. Did not eat morning chow, I felt so bad. Hope my darling wife isn’t too mad at me for it.
15 April 1945. (Mail sent/mail received) Church on USS Medusa. Memorial service for Roosevelt. Very good. Got our first fresh provisions in approx 3 months. Received letters from Wanda. Put 3 coats of paint on bottom of ship in 48 hours. Not bad while in dry dock. Got us up at 5:30 for special sea details, then didn’t get away before 1100. Purchased treats on ratings*. (Note: *Rations?)
25 April 1945 (sent mail/received mail) Received Easter pictures. Just love the ones of my wife.
26 April 1945 Saw 10 carriers of British Fleet which was a big encouragement. Firing practice.
27 April 1945 (mail sent/mail received) Underway to Okinawa. More firng practice. New war cruising watch. Now at G-2.
30 April 1945. G.Q. at 0200. 3 planes. Did not close. Started dusk and dawn alerts.
Summary: What a Month!! Interesting at Manila. Sailboat incident. Lost wedding band. Made Rate (grade of official standing of enlisted men). Dry Dock (Whooie). Headed for Okinawa. 196 days since I have seen my family. Sure miss them.
1 May 1945 – Rolled D.C. (damage control?) at good contact. At 1305, called to G-2. Exploded a mine. We were headed right for it when lookout sighted it. Explosion sent water 150 feet in the air.
2 May 1945. Arrived Okinawa. No suicide raids. Shelling beaches.
3 May 1945. 1000 left Okinawa in company with BB Tennesee. Heard of suicide raids 6 hours after we left. One DD who was stationed 3000 yards from us was hit with 5 suicides.
4 May 1945. Big suicide raids on Okinawa and Jap reinforcements landed. Believe God definitely answered prayers of protection on this mission. It was too rainy all the time we were in Okinawa for raids. Numerous ones feel we were fortunate and lucky, but as far as I am concerned, God gets the credit.
6 May 1945. (mail sent/mail received) Arrived back in Leyte after sinking floating nets earlier in the morning. Received 11 letters – more than I deserved for the ones I wrote this trip.
7 May 1945. Liberty. tramped through hills of Samar. Rest of day uneventful. May 8 or 9- V.E. Day!!
9 May 1945 Into Dry Dock again. Sound dome came loose. Oh Me!! Manicani Island.
10 May 1945. Water hours.
11 May 1945. Left dry dock. Reported on ping line between Homonhon Island and Dinagat Island in Surigao Straits. This is point of big Philippine naval battles.
12 May 1945. Firing practice. Shore bombard on Dinagat Island.
13 May 1945. Firing Practice. Held Vesper service in accordance with President’s request for prayers. Remembered and offered thanks for V.E. Day. Mothers’ Day. Sure miss you, Wanda. Picked up loose sono buoy.
14 May 1945. AA (anti-aircraft) Practice. Knocked down sleeves, which indicates we could hit airplanes. Returned to Leyte. Movies. I played checkers.
15 May 1945. (mail sent/mail received). Received 5 letters. On liberty in Samar. Boys couldn’t get over seeing WAC Camp – white women. First group we have seen. Played checkers again.
16 May 1945. Starting on mail run. Best and safest duty we could have gotten.
17 May 1945. Arrived Zamboanga, Mindanao. First stop on mail run. Natives came out to ship in droves. Bought large seashell. Left at 1300.
18 May 1945. Arrived Panay, second stop mail run. PT boat came out so we didn’t go into port. Left 0700. Arrived Mindoro at 1900. Showed movie. Left 1000.
19 May 1945. Arrived Manila 0600, left 1130. Arrived Subic Bay 1500, left 0630.
21 May 1945. Arrived Leyte 0600. Trip very uneventful. No mail. I was sort of disappointed. Attended U.S.O. show on beach. Oklahoma – very good under conditions.
22 May 1945. Left 0930 for Guivan Roadstead. Arrived 11:00. Got stores, had movie in PM (I played checkers).
23 May 1945. Left 0600. Arrived Leyte 0800. Left Leyte at 1000 for San Bernadine Straits.
24 May 1945. Arrived on patrol station in straits. Boiler trouble, so we head back to Leyte.
25 May 1945. (mail sent/mail received). Saw 2 water spouts. Arrived back home. Received 3 letters.
26 May 1945 (mail sent/mail received) Received 2 more letters today. Got 2 Cokes off Medusa, Oh Boy! 2 for a nickel.
26 May to 9 June 1945. Tied up alongside Medusa. Enjoyed being able to get Cokes, Ice Cream, liberty every third day, and movies every night. One fellow went nuts and run off in the woods. Not such a bad idea. It got him back to the states. Good church services on Medusa.
10 June 1945. Underway 1800 for Calicoan to get supplies.
11 June 1945. Helped get stores on beach. Missed good turkey dinner. Left for Leyte about 1800. Just got outside nets when we discovered 3 men left behind, so we turned around.
12 June 1945. Headed for Leyte with full crew. Then headed out for patrol halfway between Leyte and Yap. Firing practice.
15 June 1945. Dropped hedge hogs [A type of depth charge employed against U-Boats which were thrown ahead of the ASW ship. These devices were designed to explode on contact.]. Probably scared fish. Sub reported sighted in our area, but we didn’t get any good contacts.
17 June 1945. FATHERS’ DAY. Oh me! Here I am way out here. Headed for tropical storm area to investigate storm. This navy is NUTS at times!!
He signed off “This is all I have” – apparently he had written more, but the rest was lost – either while he was still in the military or in the subsequent years.
My grandfather passed away 8 February 2004. I saw him for the last time in October of 2003 when I went back to America for a visit; I told him at the time that I knew it would be the last time I’d see him this side of heaven, and that I would not be able to be there for his funeral (I live in Switzerland). His response was typical: He said, “Well that’s alright, I won’t be there either!” I loved him dearly, and I miss him; but I did give him one final warning: God had strict instructions not to allow him anywhere NEAR my mansion until I get there… no booby trapping allowed!